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LV                THE MONGOL CATACLYSM            151
Juji, the eldest son of Chengiz. After this he resigned
the initiative to the invaders and contented himself with
garrisoning his chief cities, in the hope that the Mongols,
after ravaging the open country, would return home with
their booty. Consequently the task of the Mongols was
easy, and Chengiz was able to divide up his columns
without much fear that any single one would be attacked
by an overwhelming force. To his sons Chagatay and
Ogotay the siege of Otrar was assigned ; Juji, after
defeating Mohamed, continued his march towards the
province of Jand to the north, a small force of only five
thousand being detached to work upstream to Khojand ;
and Chengiz himself, accompanied by Tuli, the youngest
of his four sons, marched on Bokhara with the main army,
ready to accept battle if Mohamed desired to fight for his
throne. The siege of Otrar lasted six months, and its
Governor, knowing that he was a doomed man, fought
to the bitter end ; but, as no aid was received from the
cowardly Shah of Khiva, the city was at last taken. The
Governor held out for another month in the fort, but in
spite of desperate bravery was taken alive and brought
before Chengiz, who ordered molten silver to be poured
into his eyes and ears in retribution for his massacre of
the unfortunate merchants. Juji captured Signac after a
seven days' siege and Jand itself offered no resistance.
Bokhara was for some days defended by the garrison,
twenty thousand strong; but the position was regarded
as hopeless, and an attempt to break through was carried
out successfully. The Mongols, though surprised, rallied
quickly and pursued the fugitives, who were cut to pieces
on the banks of the Oxus. Bokhara thereupon sur-
rendered, and Chengiz rode into the great mosque, where
the Mongols indulged in an orgy to celebrate their success.
The populace was collected and the rich men were obliged
to hand over all their wealth. The city was then sacked
and afterwards burned, and the wretched inhabitants were
divided up among their savage conquerors, whose custom
was to use the serviceable men for digging approaches, for
erecting the siege-train, and, if necessary, for filling up the
ditch of a city with fascines, which were supplemented with